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What Is Hypertension

Definition of Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a measurement of the force exerted against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. Considered a silent killer, it should not be forgotten that, although researchers have not found the specific origins of hypertension, they have determined some risk factors that make people more likely to suffer from it as is the case of a sedentary lifestyle without any type of activity, abundant consumption of salt, the state of the kidneys, mental pressures, physical pressures, hormonal abnormalities (Cushing syndrome), cardiovascular diseases (coarctation of the aorta artery), kidney diseases such as pyelonephritis, use of various drugs and some medications such as oral contraceptives, cocaine, alcohol or among many others, suffer from obesity, since the frequency of high blood pressure among obese, regardless of age, is between two and three times higher than that of individuals with a normal weight.

To measure blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and most of the time are usually shown with two numbers, in which one or both of these two may be too high. For example, 130 over 90 (written as 130/90). The first number (130) corresponds to the systolic pressure and is considered high if it exceeds 140 for most of the time, and will be considered normal if it is less than 120. On the other hand, the second figure (90) corresponds to the diastolic pressure where it is above 90 will be considered high and if it is below 80 it will be normal.

The main risk is myocardial infarction. A person suffering from undetected or untreated hypertension has, on average, 10 times more risk of dying of a heart attack than a person with normal blood pressure. Likewise, hypertension can produce thrombus or arterial ruptures, leading to bleeding, nerve damage, loss of memory or paralysis.

The kidney also suffers the consequences of arterial hypertension and renal failure occurs more frequently among hypertensive patients than among normotensives. The small vessels in the back of the eye are also affected by hypertension, which favours their rupture and bleeding, which can even lead to total or partial loss of vision.

For this reason, it is essential that a series of periodic check-ups be carried out and, in the case of suffering from hypertension, it is advisable to combine the treatment prescribed by the doctor with a healthier diet than the current one and the carrying out of physical exercises. It is highly recommended to stop smoking if you suffer from this disease since tobacco increases the pressure of the arteries in a considered way and the heart rate as well.

It should also be remembered that hypertension is a powerful cardiovascular risk factor that is potentiated when associated with high cholesterol, diabetes or uric acid so it is highly recommended to take them into account and controlled regularly.

Medium Blood Pressure

Starting from the premise that the blood flow is pulsatile, that is, it acts as a consequence of the contractions carried out by the heart, and that is why we have different pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, etc.). Mean blood pressure, also known by its initials as TAM, is the average force that tends to drive blood through the circulatory system of our body through the arteries and thanks to it we can measure the blood flow of any tissue at any given time.

Mean pressure is a pressure value that if we could take the systolic and diastolic variations and maintain a single pressure value over time, we would ensure that all tissues of the human body would be perfectly perfused, ie receive the right amounts of blood, and with it, nutrients and oxygen.
The mean blood pressure (MTBP) does not correspond to the arithmetic mean between the systolic and diastolic pressures, but is the mean pressure maintained inside the blood vessels depending on the two pressure levels mentioned above. The simplest way to calculate it is as follows:

PAM = (PAD+1/3(PAS-PAD))

That is, twice the diastolic pressure plus the systolic pressure, all divided by 3. Then, in a person whose BP is 110/70 mmHg, the AMP would be about 83 mmHg(70+1/3[110-70]).
If the systolic pressure increases, the diastolic must drop systematically in order to maintain a constant mean blood pressure and not suffer any subsequent negative effects.

Blood pressure also depends on the total volume of blood in the circulatory system. The normal blood volume in an adult is about 5L. Any decrease in this volume, as in a hemorrhage, decreases the amount of blood circulating through the arteries every minute.

The importance of average blood pressure lies in the application of this data, in the interpretation of a case of hypotension since it is very important to remember that the punished and most irreversibly affected organ is the kidney and that it depends on an average blood pressure or minimum pulse of 65 mmHg. In this way, with TAM, we can calculate the potential risk that the hypotensive case has on the kidney since it is one of the most frequent causes of acute tubular necrosis and acute renal insufficiency of pre renal origin, another usefulness resides in the application of neurosurgery, it is a very important data during the monitoring since this gives the reading of how much the brain is perfusing, if this is less than 50 the arterial pressures are lowering drastically reason why the passage of blood to this organ would be limited.

The average blood pressure is very useful to the professional who treats the patient’s condition in order to determine the state of heart function and arteries. It is important if you suffer from hypertension, to know the variations especially if you are taking any medication, to know if it is having effects or not.